Essene Chronology

The Essene Nasorean Church of Mount Carmel feels a deep continuity with ancient expressions and manifestations of the Essene ideal. In this chronology we have highlighted those events, since 587 BC, that are especially significant to us and to our understanding of past events.

The beginning of this chronology happens in the sixth century BC, an Axis Era sometimes called the zenith of human wisdom and achievement. In this era: The Essene Temple on Mount Carmel flourishes. Includes House of B'nai-Amen, Samuel, Jacob and possibly Eliyahu (Elijah) ... (Pythagoras and Theano, Confucius, Lao Tzu, Buddha, Deutero-Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) ...) Mayan civilization in Mexico, Rome declares republic, oldest extant Latin, Fables of Aesop, theater arts begin in Delphi, Age of Seven Wise Men of Greece: Thales, Pittacus, Bias, Solon, Cleobulus, Periander, Chilo; height of oracle at Delphi and its priestess, Mahavira Jina (Vardhamana) founds Jainism, Athens builds public libraries, Shwe Dagon Pagoda of Burma, Hecatompedon in Athens, Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, European La Tene culture, Temple of Apollo at Corinth, Temple of Olympian Zeus at Athens, Temple of Ceres at Paestum, Romans begin building with arched (semicircle) ceilings adopted from Etruscans, T. Priscus builds first Roman stone bridge, first record of circumnavigation of Africa, by Phoenicians for Pharaoh Necho, took three years; Cyrus of Persia establishes a pony express courier service, Darius of Persia explores Indian coast, Temple on Mt. Carmel practices eugenic preparation for the Messiah.

B'nai-Amen Chronology

587BC: Lachish Letters, ostraca, 1935/38, classical Hebrew on 21 potsherds
586: Judah, Jerusalem, Temple fall to Babylonia. Jews and some of their scrolls and other Temple artifacts are exiled to Babylon, Temple destroyed. [2K25] (Set the stage for false additions to scripture and tradition)
580: Heraion, Greek temple of Hera the Queen of Heaven, on island of Samos
575?: Priestly (P) source of Gn/Ex/Lv/Nm (Mosaic Law) written in Babylon; Gn1-2:4 ...(Contains non Essene interpolations and additions, such as animal sacrifice)
560?: Deuteronomist (D) source of Joshua to Kings written in Babylon. .(Contains non Essene interpolations and additions, such as animal sacrifice)
553?: Zarathushtra, b.630?, Persian Dualism (Good/Evil ...), Zoroastrianism
538-530: Cyrus grants Temple rebuilding to Sheshbazzar & Zerubbabel, Ez1:1f in Hebrew, Ez 6:3f in Babylonian   Aramaic, work halted during Cambyses II reign
538-167: 2nd period of Hebrew literature: Aramaisms, square script adopted.
531?: Lao-tzu, b.604?,571?, pseudonym?, Li Er?, Chinese philosopher: "Tao Te Ching". Teaches the Essene Life Stream Way under the name of Tao or Dao.
530: 2nd Isaiah (40-55) written in Babylon by Deutero-Isaiah, proclaims Cyrus as Jewish Messiah because of his    decree to rebuild Temple, [I44:25-45:4]
521: Buddha goes to the holy city Benares, India, first sermon in deer park. Sidhartha teaches the Essene ideals of non-violence, compassion and meditation.
515: Second Jerusalem Temple construction completed during Darius I reign in opposition to the true Essene Temple on Mt. Carmel.
516? Ezra, from Babylon, offers a False Torah (Mosaic Law) to Jerusalem [Neh8]. 4th Ezra speaks of him "receiving" the 24 public and 70 secret books alluding to the possibility that Ezra is responsible for all non Essene additions (pericopes) to the old Testament.
Jeshu the Scribe assists (An incarnation of Yeshua, according to the Seer Cayce, in which He translated many records into the Jewish tongue).

509: Romans complete Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus.
498: Temple of Saturn in Rome.
497: Pythagoras, b.570, inventor of Greek mathematics, musical octave, vegetarian, wearer of white, advocater of raw foods and cenobitic monstic living. Received training from Essene masters on Mt. Carmel and established the Bios Pythgorikas - the Pythagorean Lifestyle, a form of the Essene lifestyle.
483?: Gautama Buddha, Siddhartha, b.563?, Indian philosopher, Buddhism.
479: K'ung Fu-tzu, Kung Ch'iu, Confucius, b.551, Chinese philosopher, founder of Confucianism, wrote: "Lun-yu" (Analects), coined "Tao" (Way)
450?: Torah (Mosaic Law) compiled from E/J/P/D sources in Babylon. Final crystalization of the False Torah which includes animal sacrifice.
450?: Papyrus Elephantine, 1907/8, in Aramaic, Jewish military colony in Egypt built temple for gods Yahu and 'Smbyt'l and goddess Anathbethel. Establishes the historical precedent of other temples in Judaism outside of the main Jerusalem complex.
431: Temple of Apollo in Rome
430: Ruth written
400?: 1st 7 chapters of "Chuang-tzu" written by Chuang Chou; Chinese Philos.
375-335: Papyrus Samarian, in Aramaic, fragments of legal documents.
366: Temple of Concordia in Rome.
350: Chronicles, Ezra & Nehemiah (LXX: Esdras B), Jonah, Job; Jerusalem.
350: Indian epic Mahabharata (inc. Bhagavad Gita), recounts events 1400-800bce.
347: Plato, b.427?, Greek philosopher; Loeb Classics has 12 volumes
331: Alexander declared son of God at oracle of Amun in Siwa, Egypt. Significant to Essenes because of their connection to Amun, or Aumen (Essenes on Carmel are called the children of Aumen, or B'nai-Amen in Mandaen writings).
323: Remaining Jews in Judea sent to Alexandria, Egypt by Ptolemy Soter .
323: Diogenes the Cynic (kuon:dog), b.412?, lived in a barrel in Athens ...
307: Museum and Library of Alexandria begun under Ptolemy Soter
300?: Euclid, Greek mathematician and physicist; (Loeb Classics with Thales)
285-246: Ptolemy II Philadelphos rules Egypt: including Judea/Samaria/Galilee,
Torah (Mosaic Law) Greek translation: Septuagint/LXX/70 in Alexandria, lost
250: Ecclesiastes, written in Hebrew
250: Synagogues, places to study Torah (Mosaic Law), appear.
250: Asoka the Great, d.232, buddhist king of Magadha (273-232), united India in "Unity of Diversity," erected columns 40ft high inscribed with Essene like "Laws of Right Conduct & Nonviolence" picked up later by Gandhi & Martin Luther King. Sent Buddhist missionaries to Egypt and elsewhere, possibly influencing Essene brother-sisterhoods.
250?: Epistle of Jeremiah, Greek fragments found at Qumran Cave 7 (Septuagint)
239: Egyptians add a leap year to one of their calendars.
200: Book of Esther, written in Hebrew in Susa, Persia.
200?: Early non Essene False Torah (Law) Sages: Antigonus of Sochoh, Jose ben Johanan of Jerusalem, Jose ben Joezer of Zereda in Samaria, Joshua ben Perahiah and Nittai of Arbel in Galilee, Simeon ben Shetah, Judah ben Tabbai, Shemiah, Abtalion.
200?: 4QSam(b), Hebrew 1st Samuel fragments from Qumran Cave 4, LXX text-type.
200?: 4QDt(q), Hebrew Song of Moses frags. from Qumran Cave 4, LXX text-type.
200?: Targums begun, paraphrases of False Torah (Mosaic Law) into W. Syrian Aramaic.
200?: Tobit, 3 Aramaic & 1 Hebrew mss. frags. found Qumran Cave 4 (Septuagint).
194: Eratosthenes, b.276, accurately calculates earth's circumference.
180?: Wisdom of Jesus ben Sirach (LXX: Ecclesiasticus), written in Hebrew in Jerusalem, Hebrew manuscripts found at Masada and Qumran Cave 2 (Septuagint).
175?: Papyrus Rylands 458: R957, Greek Deuteronomy fragments, ~20v from 23-28.
175-68AD?: Two monastic Rules, or documents, are written. The Serak Yahad, the Manual of Discipline and the Damascus Covenant are recorded by followers of the Teacher of Righteousness. These will later be found among the Dead Sea Scrolls.
168: Antiochus IV plunders and desecrates false Jerusalem Temple, erects Zeus altar.
167: Antiochus IV abolishes false Temple worship in Dec., Jews forced to eat pork...
165: Daniel written in Jerusalem, 1/2 Aramaic, some basis in past: 280-180.
164: Jerusalem Temple rededicated, but not for pure Essene sacrifice, in Dec by Judas Maccabaeus son of Mattathias.
164-63: Hasmonean (Maccabean) Kingdom of Judea.
160-144: Jonathan Maccabaeus: High Priest and King of Jerusalem, assassinated.
150?: Judith, original written in Hebrew, ironic moralist novel (Septuagint).
150?: Psalms 151-155 (Peshitta), LXX:Ps151, Hebrew:Qumran:11QPs(a):151,154,155.
150?: Papyrus Nash, 1949, Decalogue (Ex20) and Shema (Dt5) in Hebrew.
150?: Papyrus R819: Greek Deuteronomy 11:4.
144-135: Simon Maccabaeus rules Jerusalem: expels Syrians, annexed Jaffa 135-104: John Hyrkanos I: Ethnarch & High Priest of Jerusalem, "Age of Expan-sion." annexes Trans-Jordan, Samaria, Galilee, Idumea. Forces Idumeans to convert to Judaism, hired non-Jewish mercenaries, etc. Pharisees (Perushim: lay group) and Sadducees (Zedukim: Priests) in Judea, "Sadducees have their support only among the rich, and the people do not follow them, while the Pharisees have the people for their ally" -[JA13.298]. Samaritans compile their own version of the Torah using Old Hebrew script. Qumran community established (Dead Sea Scrolls - 1949), Essene sect?, mostly Hebrew scrolls.
132: Ecclesiasticus (ben Sirach - see 180) translated into Greek (Septuagint).
130: 1 Maccabees, Greek translation of lost Hebrew original (Septuagint).
125?: 1QIsa(a), full Hebrew "Isaiah Scroll" from Qumran Cave 1, MT text-type.
125?: Additions to Greek Daniel: Prayer of Azariah (after Dn3:23) (Septuagint).
120: 2 Maccabees, Greek based on earlier lost Greek original (Septuagint).
100: Ossuaries (stone bone boxes), with Greek inscriptions appear in Jerusalem.
100: Tomb of Goliath family linked to Temple Priesthood, inscriptions in Greek.
100?: Most of the non Essene Jewish Scriptures available in Greek translation(s?).
100?: Wisdom (of Solomon); 1 Esdras (LXX:Esdras A, Vg:3 Esdras); 1 Baruch; Prayer of Manasseh (cf. 1Ch33:1-19); all written in Greek (Septuagint).
100?: Additions to Greek Daniel: Bel & Dragon (13), Susanna (14) (Septuagint).
100?: Enoch, 8 Aramaic manuscripts found at Qumran Cave 4 (Ethiopic Bible).
100?: Jubilees, 10 Hebrew manuscripts at Qumran Caves 1,2,4 (Ethiopic Bible).
100?: Papyrus R801: Greek Leviticus 26:2-16 found at Qumran Cave 4.
100?: Papyrus R805: Greek Exodus 28:4-7 found at Qumran Cave 7.
78: Book of Esther translated into Greek in Jerusalem (Septuagint).
75?: Papyrus Fouad 266: R847-8, Greek Dt11,17-33 frag.; square Hebrew Tetragram.
50?: Psalms of Solomon, Hebrew written in Jerusalem (Septuagint).
50?: Additions to (Greek) Esther: 1&after 3:13,4:17,5:2,8:12,10:3 (Septuagint).
50?: Papyrus R802: Greek Leviticus 2-5 fragments found at Qumran Cave 4.
50?: Papyrus R803: Greek Numbers 3:30-4:14 fragments found at Qumran Cave 4.
47: Herod, governor of Galilee, younger son of Antipater the Idumean, earns a reputation of being tough on Jews, kills Hezekiah without a trial ...
47: Library of Ptolemy I in Alexandria destroyed by fire.
46: Julian (Roman) calendar of 365.25 days with leap year.
40: Herod appointed king of Judea in Rome by Mark Antony and Octavian Augustus.
37: Herod captures Jerusalem with help of Roman legions.
37-4: King Herod the Great of Judea: b.73?, "Massacrer of the Innocents",  kills Antigonus and all heirs (end of Hasmonean dynasty), Augustus said:  "One would rather be Herod's swine than his son", posed as a champion of hellenic culture, purely Greek inscriptions used on coins and weights, Herod's Jerusalem and temple were thoroughly hellenistic, with Greek theatre and Hippodrome.
30: Roman Pantheon begun.
25: 3 Maccabees (Ptolemaica), written in Greek in Alexandria (Septuagint).
25?: Papyrus R942: Greek Genesis 7 and 38 fragments.
19-4: Herod rebuilds a hellenized, non Essene, Jewish Temple, includes Roman eagle gate.
15: Agrippa (12) (Herod's personal friend) visits False Jewish Temple with sacrifices.
8 BC? John the Baptist born into the Nazorene branch of the Essenes, probably near July 6, 8 BC - 6 lunar months before Yeshua / Yashuah / Jesus.

7 BC? Yeshua the Essene Nazarite, Jesus (Latin: IESVS, Greek: Iesous, Hebrew:Yeshua / Jeshu) born to Mariam and Yoseph the Nazarites of Mt. Carmel, probably on Monday, January 6, 7 BC, just after midnight on the 24th lunar day of the month of Qashot (Sun in Capricorn, Moon in Scorpio, Asc in Libra) (This is the year of the great conjunctions of Jupiter and Saturn in Pisces, signifying the birth of the Jewish Messiah. Less notable stellar events also occured in 4 BC, the year of Herod's death.)

6?: Herod executes Zealots who attempt to remove Roman eagle gate from Temple.
4-6ce: Herod Archelaus: son of Herod & Malthace, ethnarch of Judea, "The Fool."
4-34ce: Philip: son of Herod & Cleopatra, tetrarch of Iturea & Trachonitis
4-39ce: Herod Antipas: son of Herod & Malthace(Samaritan), tetrarch of Galilee.

1 AD (ce): First year in Christian calendar and the possible year of the birth of Maria Magdala. This is not the year of the birth of Yeshua who had to be born at least 4 years earlier to be born during Herod the Great's reign. (a.d.=anno Domini)

6 AD (ce): Yeshua in the Essene Temple at Yerushalom.
9: Hillel the Elder from Babylonia, b.30bce, "greatest Torah sage of Second Temple period", founder of Bet Hillel Torah school; at the request of a student to teach the entire Torah "while standing on one foot" he replied: "What is hateful to you, do not unto your neighbor. This is the entire Torah, all the rest is commentary," i.e., "Go and study it."; "He who magnifies his name destroys it; he who does not increase his knowledge decreases it, and he who does not study deserves to die; and he who makes worldly use of the crown of Torah shall waste away." [Encyclopedia Judaica]
25?: Assumption (Testament) of Moses, original Hebrew extant Latin (Apocrypha).
26-36: Pontius Pilate: Roman Prefect of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, and Idumea).
24: John the Baptist begins ministry [Luke 3:1-2: 15th year of Tiberius].
25, January 6th: Yesua (Jesus) miqvahed / baptized in the Jordan, at about 30 years of age, to remove ritual impurity by John the Baptist [Mk1:4-11] who is claimed as the founder of the Mandeaen / Nasorean sect. (a Saturday a few days after the full moon on the 3rd). (note: Ouseley's Gospel of the Holy Twelve gives a 10th month, summer date, for Yeshua's immersion. January 6th is the traditional, pre 4th century date, Cayce date and Orthodox date for Yeshua's immersion).
25, January 6th to Febuary 16th - Yeshua spends 40 days fasting in the "wilderness."
25-27?: John the Baptist arrested/killed by Herod Antipas [Lk3:19-20, Josephus].
25-28 AD, Febuary 16th 25 AD to April 23, 28 AD: (3 years, 2 months, and 7 days,)Yeshua's (Essene Jesus) ministry, foundation years of Nazarenism which was later degenerated into Christianity, {But after John was handed over to the authorities, Jesus went to Galilee, proclaiming the good word of God and saying, "The time has come & the Rule of Aumen is approaching. Repent & trust in the good word."}-Mk1:14-15(Gaus) t4:12,17, Lk4:14-15, cf. Jn4:1-3,43-46a; {& he goes up the mountain & calls the ones he wanted to him, & they went to him. And he settled on twelve <whom he also named Apostles (SV)> of them to be with him, and to be sent out by him to spread the word, and to have authority to throw out demons. And he gave Simon the name "Rock" <Aramaic: Kephas; Greek: Petros ["Peter"] a fisherman from Bthesda; first Pope? (see 67); surname: Aramaic: bar-Yonah: Johnson [Mt16:17, Jn1:42]; also called Satan! [Mk8:33 || Mt16:23]> and he gave <2>James the son of Zebedee & his brother <3>John <more fishermen, was John the disciple Jesus loved? writer of Gospel of John? only eyewitness recorder?, John the Elder? (see 130)> the name of Boanerges <Aramaic: b'nai-Rogez?: angry sons? which eans "the Thunder Brothers"; plus <4>Andrew <a Greek name, brother of Peter>, <5>Philip <Greek name, from Bathesda>, <6>Bartholomew <Aramaic: bar Ptolemaios?>, <7>Matthew <a Tax Collector! [Mt10:3], Gospel of Matthew?>, <8>Thomas <Gospel of Thomas? (see 65?), Gnostic?>, <9>James son of Alpheus, <10>Thaddeus <Theodotus?>, <11>Simon the Canaanite <a Canaanite? from Cana? a Zealot? (Greek is vague)>, and <12>Judas Iscariot <a devil! [Jn6:70]>, who betrayed him.} -Mk3:13-19(Gaus/Unvarnished NT) || Mt10:1-4,Lk6:12-1636?: Jesus betrayed by one of his own Apostles: Judas son of Simon of Iscariot.
28, Apr 23: Yeshua the Nazarite (Jesus) crucified on the lunar Sabbath, Nisan 14th (Friday, April 23, 28 AD), [Ref: John, Unauthorized Version/Fox] {And at three o'clock, Jesus cried out in a loud voice, "Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani," <Aramaic> which translates to "My Aumen, my Aumen, why did you desert <sacrifice?> me?} -Mk15:34(Gaus). Some think Last Supper would have been Thursday evening, the sixth day of the lunar week. (23Apr28 and 7Apr30 possible Fri/14/Nisan crucifixion dates).
    If Yeshua was crucified on Passover eve, 14th Nisan, 28 AD, His death would have been on the lunar Sabbath and fast day (a Friday afternoon), April 23rd, 28 AD. (The beginning of Nisan should have been Friday, April 9th at dusk, just after the sun-moon conjunction in tropical Aries.)
    This would have made Yeshua just over 34 years old if born on Monday, January 6th, 7 BC, (24th lunar day of Qashot) giving Him 3 years, 3 months, and 17 days since His baptism on January 6th, 25 AD (a Saturday a few days after the full moon on the 3rd).
28, June 26th: Yeshua the Nazarite (Jesus) conferrs Enshroudment (Priesthood) on Apostles at Pentecost in the 339th (Greek) year, according to the "Teachings of the Apostles". Dawn of the 1st day of the lunar week (a Saturday), June 26th, 28AD - Full Pentecost Moon of Teomim. (This date is based on a New Moon conjunction in tropical Gemini at dusk on Friday, June 11th, 28 AD. It assumes that Pentecost is celebrated on the full moon of Teomim / Sivan, 50 days (not counting dark moon days) from the end of Passover.)
    If Pentecost /Shavuot is counted 50 days from the second day of Passover (including dark moon days), as in the Rabbibic school, then it falls on the 6th day of Sivan, not the 15th. This would be a Friday night, June 16th, and Saturday day, June 17, 28AD. This date is not the first day of the week in either the lunar week calendar or the Rabinical week day calendar, thus lending credence to a different Nazarene Shawui calendar and method for calculating Shavuot / Pentecost.
27?-65?: period of oral tradition in Nazarenism (Essene Christianity) between Yeshua (Essene Jesus) and the Gospel of Mark, the era of Paul of Tarsus, recorded in Acts: (Simon) Peter<1> as leader? (first Pope?), John<3>, James<2>, Andrew<4>, Philip<5>, Thomas<8>, Bartholomew<6>, Matthew<7>, James<9> son of Alpheus, Simon<11?> the Revolutionary (or Zealot), Jude son of James, Mary the mother of Yeshua, Yeshua' brothers and sisters and various other women [Ac1:13-14]; Thaddeus? only about 120 initial believers? [Ac1:15], Judas<12> the betrayer commits "suicide" [Ac1:18-19], Matthias voted in as his replacement [Ac1:23-26], 3000 new converts in one day??? [Ac2:41], Peter and John jailed for one night for causing riots, number of converts increases to 5000??? [Ac3], Ananias and Sapphira die under mysterious circumstances after not giving *all* their possessions to Ebionite Nazarenism (Communal Christianity) [Ac5], Aramaic [Ac1:19] and Greek [Ac6:1] in use early on, 7 Greeks added to 12 Apostles: Stephen, Philip, Prochorus, Nicanor, Timon, Parmenas, Nicolaus [Ac6], initially there is only one Christian "church" (Greek ekklesia:G1577 most likely just an assembly rather than a formal church), in Jerusalem, Paul (Saul) of Tarsus,prior to his conversion, has Stephen martyred and the Jerusalem "church" destroyed, the original Nazarenes disperse throughout Judea and Samaria [Ac8:1ff], Paul of Tarsus converts to "Apostle to the Gentiles" and the main activity of Christianity, according to mainline scholars but not according to Essene Scholars, shifts from the Hellenic-Jewish-Christians of Judea Samaria, and Galilee (Nazarenes "of Nazareth" and Ebionites "poor ones") to the Gentile-Christians led by Paul and centered in the church of Corinth ... Nazarenes (nazoraios:G3480):Mt2:23,Ac24:5; The Way (hodos:G3598): Ac9:2,18:25-26,19:9, 23, 24:14, 22; Christians Christianos: G5546):Ac11:26,26:28,1Pt4:16 37: Paul of Tarsus' conversion, [Acts9], (a Roman citizen & tentmaker) 38: anti-Jewish riots in Alexandria [Philo: Flaccus 41-54, E-to-G 132-137]
30?: Shammai the Elder, founder of Bet Shammai Torah school; "Make your study of the Torah a matter of established regularity, say little and do much, and receive all men with a friendly countenance." [Encyc. Judaica: Avot,1,15]
39-40: anti-Jewish riots in Antioch [Malalas Chronographia 10.315] 40: Paul goes to Jerusalem to get aquainted (consult?) with Peter [Gal1:18-20] 40?: 4 Maccabees, written in Greek in Alexandria (Septuagint) 44: James brother of John executed by Herod Agrippa I [Acts12:1-3] 44: Fadus beheads Theudas for magically parting the Jordan R.[JA20.97,Ac5:36] 45: Philo Judaeus of Alexandria, b.30bce, Jewish philosopher and hellenizer, tried to unify Greek and Hebrew philosophy; Loeb Classics has 12 volumes 47-48: Paul and Barnabas on Cyprus [Acts13:4-12].
48-49: Council of Apostles and Elders, 1st Christian council?, [Ac15,Gal2.1f?] also Incident at Antioch [Gal 2.11-18] where Paul publicly condemned Peter 48-62: Pauline Epistles: l (48-55), 1Th(51), Rm(56-58), 1Cr(56), 2Cr(57), Ph(55-62) 49-50: Paul in Corinth, the center of his mission to the Gentiles [Acts18] 49-54: Claudius expels Septuagint missionaries from Rome: {Since the Jews constantly made disturbances at the instigation of Chrestus {{Christ?}}, he expelled them from Rome.} [Suetonius, de Vita Caesarum, Claudius XXV.4, Loeb] 50: Jewish riot in Jerusalem, 20-30,000 killed? [JA20.5.3,JW2.12.1]
50?: Peshitta translation begun, Hebrew OT->Syriac Aramaic, (Greek NT in 400) Peshitta, because of its Aramaic roots, is more closely associated with Nazarene followers of Yeshua than the "Christian" texts.
50?: 2nd Thess., probably itself a forgery, warns of Christian Epistle forgery. Significant because of modern Essene's claims that the New testament has been altered and is not the original gospel of the Nazarene.
50?: Ascension of Isaiah, original written in Hebrew (Ethiopic Bible) .
50?: Barthelemy Greek Minor Prophets, R943, pb.1953, unknown translation type.
52-60?: M. Antonius Felix: Roman Procurator of Iudaea, a Greek freedman .
57: Paul's last visit to Jerusalem [Acts21]
58: Paul arrested, imprisoned in Caesarea [Acts25:4]
58?: Felix crushes Jewish revolt in Caesarea
60: Paul imprisoned in Rome [Acts28:16]
62: Paul martyred for treason in Rome
62: Jesus the Rustic, proclaims "... a voice against Jerusalem ..." [Josephus].
62: {Being therefore this kind of person [i.e., a heartless Sadducee], Ananus, thinking that he had a favorable opportunity because Festus had died and Albinus was still on his way, called a meeting [literally, "sanhedrin"] of judges and brought into it the brother of Yeshua (Jesus)-who-is-called-Messiah, James by name, and some others. He made the accusation that they had transgressed the law, and he handed them over to be stoned.} [JA20.9.1,Marginal Jew,p.57] 64: Great Fire of Rome: Nero accused and persecuted the Christians: {Therefore to squelch the rumor <that Nero had started the Great Fire of Rome>, Nero created scapegoats and subjected to the most refined tortures those whom the common people called "Christians," [a group] hated for their abominable crimes. Their name comes from Christ, who, during the reign of Tiberius, had been executed by the procurator Pontius Pilate. Suppressed for the moment, the deadly superstition broke out again, not only in Judea, the land which originated this evil, but also in the city of Rome, where all sorts of horrendous and shameful practices from every part of the world converge and are fervently cultivated.} [Tacitus Annals 15.44;Marginal Jew;Meier;p.89-90]
65-150: Gospel redaction and compilation stage of Christianity, post-Paul, center of Christianity shifts to Antioch and Rome - "New Babylon" of Pt5:13.
65?: Q (German:Quelle:Source), hypothetical Greek text used in Matt & Luke.
65-150: Didache: Instructions of the Apostles, pub. 1883 (Apostolic Fathers) Considered by some scholars to be very Nazarene and anti-Pauline Christian.
65-150: Dialogue of the Savior, Gospel of Peter (Complete Gospels).
65-150: Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 1224 fragments: pub. 1914, {When the scholars a[nd Pharise]es and priests observe[ed hi]m, they were indignant [because he reclined <at table> in the com]pany of sin[ners]. But Jesus overheard [them and said,] Those who are we[ll don't need a doctor.]} -5(SV) || Mk2:15-17; Mt9:10-13; Lk5:29-32 [Ref: The Complete Gospels, 1992, ISBN:0-944344-30-5].
65-150: Gospel of Thomas, based on Q?, pub. 1959, Greek originals: Papyrus Text shares pasages preserved by ancient historians as part of the original Nazarene Gospel. Ox. 1,654-5; {Jesus said, "If your leaders say to you, 'Look, the <Father's> imperial rule is in the sky,' then the birds of the sky will precede you. If they say to you, 'It is in the sea,' then the fish will precede you. Rather, the <Father's> imperial rule is within you and it is outside you. When you know yourselves, then you will be known, and you will understand that you are children of the living Father. But if you do not know yourselves, then you live in poverty, and you are the poverty."} -Th3(SV), cf. k13:21-23; 24:23-28;Lk17:20-25;Jb28:12-14,20-22(LXX); ar3:29-32,35-37; Dt30:11-14(LXX);Sir1:1-3 {His disciples said to him, "When will the rest for the dead take place, and when will the new world come?" He said to them, "What you are looking forward to has come, but you don't know it."} -Th51(SV), cf. 11:28-29; DSav65-68; Sir51:26-27, 6:23-31; Lk17:20-21; Mk9:12-13; Mt17:11; 2Tm2:17-18 {His disciples said to him, "When will the <Parent's> imperial rule come?" "It will not come by watching for it. It will not be said, 'Look, here!' or 'Look, there!' Rather, the Parent's imperial rule is spread out upon the earth, and people don't see it."} -Th113(SV) || Lk17:20-21; cf. Mary4:4-5; Mk13:21; Mt24:23; Lk17:23 [Ref: The Complete Gospels, ISBN:0-944344-30-5].
65-175: Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 840 fragments: pub. 1908, {In response the savior said to him: "I feel sorry for the blind who can't see. You bathe in these stagnant waters where dogs & pigs wallow day & night.} -2:7(SV) cf. Mt7:6; Jn9:40-41; 2Pt2:22; Rv22:15 [Ref: The Complete Gospels, ISBN:0-944344-30-5].
65-175: Papyrus Egerton 2 (Unknown Gospel) fragments: pub. 1935/87, in Greek from Palestine, one of the oldest extant Christian texts (~175), {Turning to the rulers of the people, <Jesus> made this statement: "Pore over the <sacred> writings. You imagine that in them there is life to be had. They do indeed give evidence on my behalf."} -EgerG1:2(SV) || Jn5:39 (Comp. Gospels).
65-250: Papyrus Fayum (P. Vindob. G. 2325) fragments: pub. 1887, {(He said, after) eating according to custom, "Al[l of you on this] night will fall away, [according to] scripture: 'I will strike the [shepherd and the] sheep will be scattered.'" [When] Peter said, "Even if all, [yet not I," (Yeshua said) "Before] the cock crows twice [today three times] you will deny me."} cf. Mk14:26-31; Mt26:30-35; Lk22:31-34 [Ref: Anchor Bible Dictionary, 1992]
65-350: "Essene (Jewish-Christian) Gospels": 7 fragments of Gospel of the Ebionites and 7 fragments of Gospel of the Hebrews in Greek; 36 fragments of Gospel of the Nazarenes in Aramaic; [Ref: NT Apocrypha, W. Schneemelcher, vol. 1]
64-66: Gessius Florus: Roman Procurator of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, Idumea), a Greek from Asia Minor, raids Temple setting off Jewish rebellion of 66-70.
66? Mark first dictated, greatly by Peter, just before he is carried to Rome, according to Cayce.
66-70: Roman-Jewish War: final destruction of Second Temple (Herod's Temple) The early Essene Church abandons their temple in the Essene Quarter and flees to the Pella region of Jordon.
67: Peter, 1st Pope?, bishop of Antioch & Rome?, martyred (crucified?) in Rome
67-78: Linus becomes second (first?) Pope: 2Tm4:21?.
68: Qumran (Essenes?) (Dead Sea Scrolls Monastery?) community destroyed by Rome.
68: General exodus of John's followers who did not have the insight to follow Yeshua, migrating eastward to become the Manddaens who have preserved many ancient Nazarene-Essene customs.

70: General Titus, Vespasian's eldest son, conquers Jerusalem, destroys Herodian Temple and partially levels Essene Sanctuary on Mt. Zion in the Essene Quarter.
70-361: special annual tax of 2 drachmas levied on all Jews of the Roman Empire since Jupiter Capitolinus (God of Rome) had defeated God of Jerusalem {Besides other taxes, that on the Jews was levied with the utmost rigour, and those were prosecuted who without publicly acknowledging that faith yet lived as Jews, as well as those who concealed their origin and did not pay the tribute levied upon their people. {These were doubtless Christians, whom the Romans commonly confounded with the Jews.} I recall being present in my youth when the person of a man ninety years old was examined before the procurator and a very crowded court, to see whether he was circumcised.} [Suetonius, de Vita Caesarum, Book VII, Domitian, XII.2, Loeb Classics].
70-640: Sanhedrin (High Court) period of Judaism, rise of house of Hillel (9) True Essenism being obscured by the rise of Rabinical Judaism, causing confusion as to the customs and practices of Essene Jews.
70-132: Sanhedrin (High Court) of Judaism regularly held in Jabneh (Jamnia), begun by Rabban Johanan ben Zakkai to 'perform commandments and teach False Torah.'
70?: Gospel of Mark, Peter's interpreter? [1Pt5:13], written in Rome?, ends unexpectedly at Mk16:8, original ending apparently lost, endings added ~400 .
70?: "Signs Gospel", hypothetical Greek text used in Gospel of John to prove Essene Yeshua is Messiah; [Complete Gospels]: Opening: Jn1:6-7,19-49; in Galilee: Jn :1-12a,4:46b-54,21:1-14,6:1-14, 15b-25; in Jerusalem: Jn11:1-45,9:1-8,5:2-9; Culmination: Jn11:47-53,2:14-19,12:37-40; Passion Prelude: Jn12:1-8,12-15; Passion: Jn18:1-19:42; Resurrection: Jn20:1-22; Closing: Jn20:30-31.
71?: "The Jewish War" (JW), by Josephus (see 100?), written in Greek.
73: Jewish fortress at Masada falls to Rome, residents commit mass suicide.
73?: Nazarenes return to Jerusalem under the leadership of Shimeon, James the Lord's brother's and Yashuah's brother / cousin and sucessor. They rebuild the Essene Sanctuary later known as the Church of the Apostles and the Cenacle, probably with stones from the ruined Temple of Solomon.
77? Gospel of John sections compiled some 50 years after the crucifixion, according to Cayce.

79: Pliny the Elder, b.23, Roman scholar, victim of Vesuvius eruption, wrote of Essenes; Loeb Classics has 10 volumes of Pliny's "Natural History."
79-91: Pope Anacletus: "blameless?", Titus 1:7?.
80?: Gospel of Matthew, most popular in early church, based on Mark and Q .
80?: "Council of Jamnia" said to have canonized Jewish Scripture [discredited].
81-96: Domitian: emperor of Rome, son of Vespasian, "Nero redivivus?" (see 68).
90?: Gospel of Luke, based on Mark & Q, also Acts - same author, style of LXX. Cayce says of Luke: "written of course, unto those of the faith under the Roman influence . . . and it was from those (Roman) sources that the very changes were made as to the differences in that given by Mark and Matthew."
90?: Josephus claims exactly 22 Jewish (OT) books: 5 Law, 13 History, 4 Hymns.
91-101: Pope Clement I: Phil4:3?, wrote to Corinth in 95: "1 Clement" (AF)
94: "Jewish Antiquities", by Josephus in Aramaic, trans. to Grk., Testimonium
Flavianum: {At this time there appeared Jesus, a wise man. For he was a doer of startling deeds, a teacher of people who receive the truth with pleasure. And he gained a following both among many Jews and among many of Greek origin. And when Pilate, because of an accusation made by the leading men among us, condemned him to the cross, those who had loved him previously did not cease to do so. And up until this very day the tribe of Christians (named after him) has not died out.} [JA18.3.3 Meier redaction, Marginal Jew, p.61]
100? Matthew written 33 to 34 years after Mark, according to Cayce.
100?: Gospel of John: only eyewitness? the disciple Jesus loved? Gnostic? ...[see 77 AD entry].
100?: Odes of Solomon, written in Greek or Syriac, ref by John? (Apocrypha).
100?: Epistle of Barnabas, Christian exegesis of LXX (AF=Apostolic Fathers).
100?: 2 Clement, an old sermon but not by Clement (AF=Apostolic Fathers) .
100?: 2 Esdras (Vg:4 Esdras), Hebrew?, claims 24 OT books (Vulgate & Peshitta).
100?: Apocalypse of Baruch (2 Baruch:Syriac, 3 Baruch:Greek) (Peshitta).
100?: Paralipomena of Jeremiah (4 Baruch), written in Hebrew (Ethiopic Bible).
100?: Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, Aramaic and Hebrew fragments found at Qumran Caves 1,4 (Armenian Bible)
100?: Masoretes at Tiberias compile Masora (MT), standard Jewish Scriptures.
100?: Flavius Josephus, b.37, Jewish general, turncoat, historian, hellenist: Against Apion; Jewish War (JW) in 71; Jewish Antiquities (JA) in 94; 10 Loeb.
100-150: Secret Book (Apocryphon) of James, Gospel of Mary Magdalene, Infancy Gospels of Thomas and James, Secret Gospel (of Mark) (Complete Gospels).
110?: Letter of Polycarp to the Philippians, written by Polycarp (160) (AF).
110?: "Letters of Ignatius", bishop of Antioch, martyred in Rome, his letters were subjected to heavy Christian forgery esp. 4th cent. (Apostolic Fathers).
114: Lucius Apuleius, Roman satirist: The Golden Ass, Metamorphoses; Loeb: 3v.
114?: Pliny the Younger, b.61?, Roman consul: "Epistulae": (10.96); Loeb: 2 v.
115: Lucian, Gk satirist: Passing of Peregrinus (satire of Christians); Loeb8v.
115-117: Kitos War in Jerusalem, provoked by Roman Procurator Lucius Quietus.
125?: Papyrus 52: oldest extant NT fragment, p.1935, parts of Jn18:31-33,37-38.
125?: Shepherd of Hermas, written in Rome (AF=Apostolic Fathers).
130-200: "Christian Apologists" writings against Roman Paganism by: Justin Martyr (165), Athenagoras (180?), Aristides (145?), Theophilus of Antioch (185?), Tatian (170), Quadratus (130?), Melito of Sardis (180?), Apollinaris of Hierapolis (180?), also Epistle to Diognetus in Apostolic Fathers.
130?: "Gospel of Basilides", a 24 book commentary?, lost.
130?: Papias, bishop of Hierapolis in Asia Minor, wrote: "Expositions of the Sayings of the Lord", lost, widely quoted, see Eusebius (340) (AF)

130?: Aquila of Pontus, Roman convert to Christianity then to Judaism, student of Rabban Gamaliel, compiled literal Greek OT translation in Jabneh (Jamnia)
132-135: Bar Kokhba Revolt: final Jewish revolt, Judea and Jerusalem erased from maps, all of southern Syria renamed Palestine (coined by Herodotus)
135: R. Akiva ben Joseph of Judea, b.50?, executed by the Romans for teaching Torah in public after revolt, flesh was torn from his body with iron combs, coined "thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself" as 1st principle of Torah
138-165: Sanhedrin (High Court) of Judaism regularly held in Usha, Galilee
140: Letters of Marcion, produces his own canon without OT and using only a heavily edited Luke + 10 Pauline Epistles, cites "Western" Gospel text-type.
140?: Apocalypse of Peter, written in Greek [NT Apocrypha,Schneemelcher,v.2].
150?: Justin Martyr's "Dialogue with Trypho" fictional Christian-Jewish debate.
150?: Gospel of the Egyptians, Coptic translation of orig. Greek (Nag Hammadi).
150?: Nagarjuna founds Madhyamika (Mahayana Buddhism) school in India.
150?: "Western Reviser" adds/subtracts from original Acts to produce "Western" version which is 10% larger and found in Papyrus P29,38,48 & Codex Bezae (D)
{Who it was that was responsible for the additional information concerning the apostolic age or where it came from is entirely unknown. According to F. G. Kenyon, "What one would like to suppose (but for which there is no external evidence), is that one of St. Paul's companions transcribed Luke's book [Acts] perhaps after the author's death), and inserted details of which he had personal knowledge, made other alterations in accordance with his own taste in a matter on which he was entitled to regard himself as having authority equal to that of Luke."} [Textual Comm., Metzger, p272, 3-438-06010-8].
150?: Papyrus Chester Beatty 6: R963, Greek Num 5:12-36:13, Deut 1:20-34:12.
160?: Polycarp, bishop of Smyrna, martyred at age 86: "Let. to Philip." (110).
160?: Martyrdom of Polycarp, in Greek (Apostolic Fathers, ISBN:0-8010-5676-4).
165: Letters of Justin Martyr, cites "Acts of Pilate", debates Trypho the Jew.
165-180: Sanhedrin (High Court) of Judaism regularly held in Shefaram, Galilee.
166-174: Pope Soter: moved Easter from Nisan 14 to following Sunday. A major shift from the muni-solar Essene calendar used by early Nazarenes to the Roman "sunday" based weekly calendar.
170: Letters of Irenaeus, bishop of Lyons, cites "Western" Gospel text-type.
170: Christian council on Montanist sect in Asia Minor.
170: Letters of Dionysius, bishop of Corinth, claims Christians were changing and faking his own letters just as [he knew] they had changed the Gospels.
170: Tatian produces "Diatessaron" (Harmony) by blending 4 "Western" text-typeGospels into 1:
{... [the mother of the sons of Zebed]ee (Mt27:56) & Salome (Mk15:40) & the wives [of those who] had followed him from [Galile]e to see the crucified (Lk23:49b-c). And [the da]y was Preparation; the Sabbath was daw[ning] (Lk23:54). & when it was evening (Mt27:57), on the Prep[aration], that is, the day before the Sabbath (Mk25:42), [there came] up a man (Mt27:57), be[ing] a member of the council (Lk23:50), from Arimathea (Mt27:57), a c[i]ty of [Jude]a (Lk23:51), by name Jo[seph] (Mt27:57), good & ri[ghteous] (Lk23:50), being a disciple of Jesus, but se[cret]ly, for fear of the [Jew]s (Jn19:38). & he (Mt27:57) was looking for [the] k[ingdom] of God (Lk23:51b). This man [had] not [con]sented to [their] p[urpose] (Lk23:51a) ...} {#0212}
[Ref: Text of the NT, Bruce Metzger, 3rd ed., ISBN:0-19-507297-9, pg. 90]
170?: Symmachus, an Ebionite, writes an entirely new Greek OT translation
175?: Acts of Paul (inc. 3 Cor.), in Greek [NT Apocrypha,Schneemelcher,v.2].
178: Celsus writes "True Discourse", a pro-Pagan/anti-Christian polemic, lost.
180-210: Sanhedrin (High Court) of Judaism regularly held in Beth-shearim .
180?: Minucius Felix, Roman Christian lawyer, wrote: "Octavius" on morality.
185-350: Canon Muratorian: first extant for NT? written in Rome by Hippolytus? ex: Hebrews, James, 1-2Pt, 3Jn; in: Wisdom of Solomon, Apocalypse of Peter.
189-198: Pope Victor I: first Latin Pope, excommunicated Eastern churches that
continued to observe Easter on the Essene date of Nisan 14 "Quartodeciman."
, (see 166, 190)
190: Christian council to determine "official" date of Easter.
200: Mishnah, Torah teachings, Halakhah (Oral Law), by Hillel/Akiva/Meir/Judah.
200: Bishop of Antioch notes Gospel of Peter (see 65?) being used in Cilicia.
200-300: period of Neo-Platonism: developed in Alexandria, last of Greek philosophies, [Hermetica, Sir Walter Scott, ISBN:0-87773-338-4] (see 270)
200?: Papyrus 66: 2nd Bodmer, John, 1956, "Alexandrian/Western" text-types: Jn 1:1-6:11, 35-7:52; 8:12-14:26, 29-30;15:2-26; 16:2-4, 6-7, 10-20:20, 22-23, 25-21:9
200?: Papyrus 75: Bodmer 14-15, Luke & John, earliest extant Luke, ~Vaticanus;
22:4-24:53; Jn1:1-7:52;8:12-11:45,48-57;12:3-13:1,8-9;14:8-30;15:7-8
200?: Papyrus 46: 2nd Chester Beatty, "Alexandrian" text-type: Rm5:17-6:3,5-14
200?: Papyrus 32: J. Rylands Library: Titus 1:11-15;2:3-8
200?: Papyrus 64 (+67): Mt3:9,15;5:20-22,25-28;26:7-8,10,14-15,22-23,31-33
200?: Old Syriac (Aramaic) Gospels, Syr(s) & Syr(c), of "Western" text-type
200?: Latin Bible translations begun in Carthage?, originals no longer extant.
200?: Sahidic Coptic cop(sa) Bible translations written in Alexendria .
200?: Theodotion, Greek convert to Judaism, makes revision of LXX (Septuagint).
210-240: Sanhedrin (High Court) of Judaism regularly held in Sepphoris Galilee.
217-236: Anti-Pope Hippolytus: bishop of Rome, "Logos" sect
217: Judah Ha-Nasi, "Rabbi", codified Mishnah (200).
220?: Clement of Alexandria, b.150?, bishop, scholar, advocate of Essene Diet and disciplines, cites "Alexandrian" NT text-type & Secret Gospel of Mark & Gospel of the Egyptians; wrote: "Exhortations to the Greeks";"Rich Man's Salutation";"To the Newly Baptized"; (Loeb Classics)
223?: Tertullian, wr: "de Spectaculis" (Latin): v30.6 cites rumor Jesus son of prostitute, coined "New Testament", cites "Western" Gospel text-type (Loeb).
225?: Papyrus 45: 1st Chester Beatty, Gospels (Caesarean), Acts (Alexandrian):
  Mt20:24-32;21:13-19;25:41-26:39; Mk4:36-40;5:15-26,38-6:3,16-25,36-50;7:3-15
  ,25-8:1,10-26,34-9:9,18-31;11:27-12:1,5-8,13-19,24-28; Lk6:31-41,45-7:7;9:26
  33; Jn10:7-25,30-11:10,18-36,42-57; Ac4:27-36;5:10-21,30-39;6:7-7:2,10-21,32
225?: Papyrus 967: Chester Beatty 9, Greek Ezekiel 11:25-end, ~Codex Vaticanus.
230-236-237-250: Pope Pontian - Pope Anterus - Pope Fabian.
230-250: Christian council of Rome, Demetrius bishop of Alex. condemns Origen.
240-250: Christian council of Carthage.
240-640: Sanhedrin (High Court) of Judaism regularly held in Tiberias, Galilee.
248: Origen (d.254) writes "Contra Celsus", against Celsus' lost work of 178, cites a rumor recorded by Celsus: "Jesus fabricated the account of his birth from a virgin. In reality, Jesus' mother was driven out by the carpenter husband to whom she was betrothed because she had committed adultery with a [Roman] soldier named Panthera [thus the ben Pantere of Jewish sources]. Left poor and homeless, she gave birth to Jesus in secret. Jesus later spent time in Egypt, where he hired himself out as a laborer, learned magic, and so came to claim the title of God." [CC1.28-32, marginal Jew, Meier, p. 223].
250: Letters of Methodius, Pistis Sophia, Porphyry Tyrius; church fathers.
250: Rome steps up persecution of Christians, martyrs revered as saints .
250: Paul the Hermit enters the deserts of Egypt where he will be found 90 years later by Saint Anthony.
250?: Mandeans (Essene like followers of John the Baptist) begin compilation of "Ginza"
250?: Papyrus 72: Bodmer 5-11+, pub. 1959, "Alexandrian" text-type: Nativity of Mary; 3Cor; Odes of Solomon 11; Jude 1-25; Melito's Homily on Passover; Hymn fragment; Apology of Phileas; Ps33,34; 1Pt1:1-5:14; 2Pt1:1-3:18;
250?: Papyrus Chester Beatty: #5:R962: Gn8:13-9:2,24:13-46:33,Enoch91-105; #7: I8:18-19:13, 38:14-45:5, 54:1=60:22; #8: Jr4:30-5:24; #10: Dn1-12:13(+Add),Bel4-39,Sus5-end, Esther1:1a-8:6(+Add)
251-258: anti-Pope Novatian: decreed no forgiveness for sins after baptism
253-260: Valerian: emperor of Rome, executes all Bishops, Priests and Deacons
254-257: Pope Stephen I: major schism over rebaptizing heretics and apostates
254: Letters of Origen, b.185?, coined "homoousios" or Jesus and God of one substance, adopted at the herical anti-Essene Council of Nicaea in 325, compiled "Hexapla": 6 versions of LXX side by side, including one found in a cave near Qumran: Hebrew, Hebrew transliterated in Greek, Aquila's Greek trans., Symmachus' Greek trans., Origen's revised LXX Greek trans., Theodotion's revised LXX; also Quinta/Sexta/Septima trans., Tetragrammaton in square Hebrew script; cites "Alexandrian" & "Caesarean" NT text-types; Eusebius claimed Or. castrated himself for Christ due to Mt19:12 [EH6.8.1-3].
258: Letters of Cyprian, bishop of Carthage, cites "Western" NT text-type, claims Christians are freely forging his letters to discredit him.
260-268: Gallienus: emperor of Rome, reverses Valerian, restores Roman church.
260-268: Pope Dionysius: rebuilds Roman church after Valerian's massacre .
264-268: Christian council on Paul of Samosata, bishop of Antioch, founder of Adoptionism: Jesus was human until Holy Spirit descended at his baptism.
264?: Letters of Dionysius, bishop of Alexandria, b.190?
275-283: Pope Eutychian: decreed that only beans and grapes be blessed at Mass
275?: Papyrus 47: 3rd Chester Beatty, ~Sinaiticus, Rv9:10-11:3,5-16:15,17-17:2
276: Mani, b.215, crucified, founder of Manichaean Christian sect in Persia. Ex Mandaaen and preserver of some Essene nazarene doctrines.
285: Saint Anthony the great, considered by some as the Father of Monks, 16 years after a call to the desert, retires to the wastes of northern lower Egypt until his death in 356.

300?: Bohairic Coptic cop(bo) Bible translations written in Alexandria .
300?: Hesychius of Alex., martyr, translates Hebrew OT to Greek, lost [Jerome].
300?: Papyrus Berlin Codex of Greek Genesis; Papyrus Bodmer 24 of Greek Psalms; Codex Freer of Greek Minor Prophets; all published in 1927.
300?: other 3rd century NT witnesses: P1:Mt1:1-9,12,14-20 P4:Lk1:58-59,62-2:1,
  6-7;3:8-4:2,29-32,34-35;5:3-8,30-6:16 P5:Jn1:23-31,33-40;16:14-30;20:11-17,
  19-20,22-25 P9:1Jn4:11-12,14-17 P12:Hb1:1 P15:1Cr7:18-8:4 P20:Jm2:19-3:9
  P22:Jn15:25-16:2,21-32 P23:Jm1:10-12,15-18 P27:Rm8:12-22,24-27,33-9:3,5-9
  P28:Jn6:8-12,17-22 P29:Ac26:7-8,20 P30:1Th4:12-13,16-17;5:3,8-10,12-18,25-28
  ;2Th1:1-2 P38:Ac18:27-19:6,12-16 P39:Jn8:14-22 P40:Rm1:24-27,31-2:3;3:21-4:8
  ;6:4-5:16;9:16-17:27 P48:Ac23:11-17,23-29 P49:Ep4:16-29,31-5:13 P53:Mt26:29-
  40;Ac9:33-10:1 P65:1Th1:3-2:1,6-13 P69:Lk22:41,45-48,58-61 P70:Mt2:13-16,22-
  3:1;11:26-27;12:4-5;24:3-6,12-15 P80:Jn3:34 P87:Pm13-15,24-25
  #0171:Mt10:17-23,25-32;Lk22:44-56,61-64 #0189:Ac5:3-21 #0220:Rm4:23-5:3,8-13
303-311: Last persecution of Christians in Rome before their total metamorphosis away from original Essene practices.
304: Letters of Victor, bishop of Pettau.
306-337: Emperor Constantine the Great: converts to non Essene Christianity on deathbed.
306: Synod of Elvira prohibits eating, marriage, sex between Christians & Jews, which entailed exclusion of all Essene Nazarene Christians from the growing gentile Pauline church.
312: Lucian, founded Exegetical School of Antioch, revised LXX, martyred .
313: Edict of Milan, Constantine establishes toleration of Christianity .
313: Miltiades excommunicates Donatus for requiring rebaptism of apostates.
317: Letters of Lactantius, early Christian church father.
321: Constantine decrees SUN-day as official Roman-Christian day of rest.
323: Saint Pachomius (ca. 292-346) and his sister settle in Tabennesi in southern upper Egypt, establishing a cenobitic monastic system, somewhat after ancient Essene monasteries, there where over 5000 monks and nuns lived at his death.

325: Council of Nicaea, called by Constantine against Arianism (336), called "1st great Christian council" by Jerome, 1st ecumenical, 318 bishops attend. Nazarenes purposely excluded and legislated against.
325?: Fayyumic Coptic cop(mf) translation fragment of John 6:11-15:11 .
330: Monasteries begin to resurface in Palestine.
338: Jewish calender modified with different year lengths to correct to Solar.
340?: Eusebius of Caesarea, theologian & church historian, cites "Caesarean" NT text-type, wrote: "Ecclesiastical History"
(EH); Loeb Classics: 2 volumes  {Papias, bishop of Hierapolis (130?), claims that John the Elder, a disciple of Jesus, told him that Mark "was the interpreter of Peter and wrote down carefully what he remembered of what had been said or done by the Lord, but not in the right order." Also claims that "Matthew composed the sayings in Hebrew [more likely Aramaic] and each one translated them as he could."}  [Ref: EH3.39.15, Unauthorized Version, Fox, p.126-127] Eusebius' NT Canon: Recognized Books: 4 Holy Gospels, Acts, 14 Pauline Epistles, 1Jn, 1Pt; Disputed Books: Rev, James, Jude, 2Pt, 2-3Jn, Acts of Paul, Hermas, Apocalypse of Peter, Barnabas, Didache, Gospel of the Hebrews; Rejected Books: Gospels of Peter, Thomas, Matthias, Acts of Andrew, John ... [EH3.25]
341: Saint Anthony finds Paul of Thebes.
345: St. Jerome is born, who later would translate the Essene Gosepl of Peace.
350: Letters of Adamantius, Firmicus Maternus; early Christian church fathers.
350?: Codex Sinaiticus (S or <ALEPH>): earliest Christian Bible,  (LXX - 2-3Maccabees - Psalms of Solomon - Ps151 + 27NT + Barnabas + Hermas), missing Hermas31.7-end; of "Alexandrian" text-type: most accurate text-type.
350?: Codex Vaticanus (B): earliest Christian Bible (LXX - 1-4Maccabees -
  Psalms of Solomon - Ps151 + 27NT), missing Gn1-46:28, Ps105:27-137:6,
  1Tm-Phm, Heb9:14-end; of "Alexandrian" text-type: most accurate text-type
350?: Papyrus Antinoopolis of Book of Proverbs in Greek, published in 1950
350?: Papyrus Chester Beatty: #4:R961: Greek Gn9:1-44:22; #11: Greek Sir36:28-
  37:22,46:6-47:2; #12: Greek Enoch93:12-13,94:7-8,97:6-104:13,106:1-107:3
350?: Papyrus Bodmer 45-46: Greek Susanna, Daniel 1:1-20 (Theodotion's LXX)
350?: Canon Cheltenham: 24NT books (excludes James, Jude, Hebrews)
350?: Akhmimic cop(ac) & Sub-Akhmimic cop(ac2) Coptic translations of John
350?: Avesta (Zoroastrian texts back to 1,000 bce) compiled in Persia
363: Council of Laodicea names 26NT books (excludes Revelations)
364: Council of Laodicea, in an attempt to wipe out original Nazarene Essenes, decrees death for Christians who keep 7th day Sabbath.
367: Athanasius, d.373, bishop of Alexandria, first cite of modern 27NT canon.
370: Epiphanius, bishop of Salamis, Cyprus; cites 27NT + Wisdom of Solomon.
370-9?: Doctrine of Addai at Edessa proclaims 17 book NT canon using Diatessaron.
  (instead of the 4 Gospels) + Acts + 15 Pauline Epistles (inc. 3 Corinthians).
370: Basil the Great is baptised and sets off to visit monks in Syria and Egypt who preserve many Essene traditions and customs. On his return he established cenobitic life in Cappodocia, writing the Long and Short rules about 370.
378: Saint Melania (342-ca409) establishes a double monastery in Jerusalem for both monks and nuns to live together, continuing the Nazarene Essene custom of monastic living.

382: Pope Damasus I has Jerome begin revision & unification of Latin Bibles.
383: Evagrius Ponticus (345-399) arrives in Nitria and the Cells in the Egyptian desert. He transmits monastic Essene tradition to writing.
384: Jerome presents Pope Damasus I with new Latin Gospels, originals lost.

384-399-401: Pope Siricius (criticized Jerome) - Pope Anastasius I.
386: Letters of Cyril of Jerusalem, cites "Caesarean" NT text-type.
390: Letters of Tyconius, Gregory of Nyssa, Didymus of Alex.; church fathers. Death of Saint Macarius the Egyptian who first gathered disciples in the great desert of Skete, south of Nitria.
396: Meropius Paulinus (ca353-431), with his wife Therasia establish a house moanstery at Nola.

400-600: era of "aggressive forgeries" in Christian texts.[Grant,J.T.S.,1960]
400?: Vulgate Bible (Hebrew OT->Latin, Greek NT->Latin), by Jerome? (340?-420)
  originals lost, Vulgate Latin Text becomes standard Western Christian Bible
400?: Codex Vercellensis it(a): Latin Gospels, of "European" text-type
400?: Peshitta Bible, Syriac (Aramaic) Vulgate, Syr(p), OT + 22 NT, excludes:
  2Pt, 2-3Jn, Jude, Rev; Peshitta becomes standard Syrian Christian Bible
400?: Palestinian Talmud (Mishnah (Oral Law) + Gemara (Mishnah commentary))
400?: Pericope of the Adulteress, John 7:53-8:11, added to Bible [Jerome,(D)]
400?: Codex Bobiensis it(k): ~half of Mt/Mk in Latin, "African" (Carthage) text-type, has "shorter" ending of Mark after Mk16:8:
{But they reported briefly to Peter & those with him all that they had been told. & after this Jesus himself sent out by means of them, from east to west, the sacred and imperishable proclamation of eternal slavation.} [Text.Com., Metzger, p.123] 400?: Jerome cites "expanded" ending of Mark found in (W) after Mk16:14: {And they excused themselves, saying, "This age of lawlessness and unbelief is under Satan, who does not allow the truth & power of God to pervail over the unclean things of the spirits [or does not allow what lies under the unclean spirits to understand the truth & power of God]. Therefore reveal thy righteousness now" - thus they spoke to Christ. And Christ replied to them, "The term of years of Satan's power has been fulfilled, but other terrible things draw near. And for those who have sinned I was delivered over to death, that they many inherit the spirtual & incorruptible glory of righteousness which is in heaven."} [A Textual Commentary on the Greek NT, Bruce Metzger, p.124]
401-417: Pope Innocent I: decreed Roman custom the norm for Christianity in opposition to true Essene customs observed by Yeshua and his disciples.
403: Letters of Epiphanius of Constantia, John Chrysostom; church fathers.
410: Beginnings of Alchemy.
415: Bishop Cyril of Alex. (444) expels Jews, kills Hypatia, of the Pythagorean school which preserved Essene teachings, with oyster shells.
423: Theodoret, bishop of Cyrrhus, notes Tatian's Harmony (170) in heavy use.
424: John Cassian is born. He later writes Institutions, Conferences, and Collations which detail monastic traditions passed on from ancient Essene monasteries.
427?: Ashi, head of Sura Yeshiva, "Rabbana", began compilation of Bab. Talmud.
430: St. Augustine, b.354, origin of "Original Sin," church father & philosopher, wrote: "The City of God", "Confessions"; Loeb Classics 10 v. (Latin) major source of modern Christian attitudes.
431: Council of Ephesus: 3d ecumenical; decreed Mary: Mother of God (Theotokos).
431: Letters of Nonnus of Panopolis, John Cassian; Christian church fathers.
431: Syrian Christianity splits into East (Nestorian) and West (Jacobites). Nestorians preserve the Essene Gospel of Peace and the remnants of the Shawui calendar of Yeshua.
432: Melania the Younger establishes a convent for nuns on the Mt. of Olives, and a moanstery for men nearby in 436, continuing the Nazarene Essene custom of monastic living.
450?: Mark's Resurrection of Jesus, Mark 16:9-20, added to Bible [(A),(D),(W)].

450?: Codex Alexandrinus (A): (LXX - 1-2Maccabees + 14_Church_Odes + 27NT +
1-2Clement), missing 1K12:17-14:9, Ps49:20-79:11, Psalms of Solomon, Mt1-25:6, Jn6:50-8:52, 2Cr4:13-12:6, 1Clement57.7-63.4, 2Clement12.5b-end; of "Alexandrian" text-type: most accurate text-type
450?: Codex Bezae (D): Greek/Latin Gospels + Acts; Codex Washingtonianus (W): Greek Gospels; both of "Western" text-type: "fondness for paraphrase"
450?: Codex Ephraemi Syri rescriptus (C): Greek LXX + 27NT, many gaps
450?: Codex Marchalianus (Q): Greek LXX + Luke + John, many gaps
450?: Codex Ambrosianus (F): Greek Genesis to Joshua
450?: Codex Freer: Greek Deuteronomy and Joshua
450?: Codex Colberto-Sarravianus: Origen's Greek Hexapla LXX of Gen-Judge.
450?: Codex Palatinus it(e): Latin Gospels, "African" (Carthage) text-type
450?: Codex Veronensis it(b): Latin Gospels, "European/Vulgate" text-type
450?: Syr(pal), Palestinian Syriac (Aramaic) Gospels, of "Caesarean" text-type.
450?: Std. Aramaic Targums, T. Onkelos of Torah, T. Jonathan of Prophets.
451: Council of Chalcedon: 4th ecumenical, declared Jesus is 2 natures, both human and divine, in one; a compromise solution of Jesus god/man schisms.
451: Nestorius of Constantinople, Nestorians: Mary was *not* "Mother of God"
483: Saint Sabbas (439-532) establishes his monastic laura at Mar Saba, south of Jerusalem, continuing the Nazarene Essene custom of monastic living. It is here that the Secret Gospel of Mark will be found in the late 20th century.
484-519: Acacian schism: over "Henoticon" divides Western and Eastern churches. Eastern churches preserving more of the original Nazarene doctrines than the Western Rite.
480:? Benedict of Nursia is born. He will later write the Rule, the standard canon for western monasteries, based on the Rule of the Master which is itself based on older, now lost, links that go back to Essene Moanstic Rules such as the Serek Yahad.

489: Zeno destroys Nestorian(451) school at Edessa, erects Church of St.Simeon.
491: Armenian Church secedes from East (Byzantium) and West (Rome) churches.
498: Nestorians (451) settle in Nisibis, Persia.
500: Incense introduced in Christian church service, first plans of Vatican.
500?: Codex Sangallensis vg<SIGMA>: earliest extant Latin Vulgate, Gospels.
500?: Codex Cottonianus: Greek Genesis.
502: Narsai of Mealletha, Syrian poet, heads Nestorian school in Nisibis(498).
525: Dionysius Exiguus erroneously sets Christian calendar (a.d.) & Jesus birth @ 23Dec1ce.

529: St. Benedict moves his Essene like monastic community from Subiaco to Monte Cassino where he dies in 547.
529: Justinian closes 1000yr Athen's School of Philosophy, declared Paganistic.
542: Plague in Constantinople from Egyptian and Syrian rats, spreads to Europe.
543: Justinian condemns Origen (254), disastrous earthquakes hit the world.
550: Byzantine Greek Text, standard Eastern Bible, much smoothing & conflation.
550: St. David converts Wales to Christianity,crucifix becomes Christian icon.
550?: Codex Claromontanus (Dp): Greek/Latin Pauline Epistles + Canon of ~250ce lists 27NT+ Barnabas+ Hermas+ Acts of Paul+ Apocalypse of Peter; "Western" type.
550?: Codex Mediolanensis vg(M): Latin Vulgate Gospels.
550?: Codex Veronensis: Greek & Old Latin Psalms.
552: Emperor Shotoko Taishi introduces Buddhism into Japan.
594: End of plague which began in 542 and *halved* the population of Europe!
596: St. Augustine of Canterbury sent to convert Britain to Christianity .
600: Babylonian Talmud (Mishnah(Oral Law) + Gemara(Mishnah commentary)); Ashi.
600?: Codex Harleianus vg(Z): Latin Vulgate Gospels.
600?: Saint Catherine's monastery, built at the foot of mount Sinai by Justinian, becomes the most vital center of eastern monastacism. The Ladder of Paradise of St. John Climacus, monk of Sinai, synthesizes the ascetic and mystic tradition of the East.
600?: Codex Philoxenian/Harclean Syr(ph/h): Syriac 27NT, "Western" text-type.
609: Roman Pantheon (a Pagan Temple) renamed Church of Santa Maria Rotonda.
610: Muhammad's vision on Mount Hira.
614: Persians take Damascus and Jerusalem and "Holy Cross of Christ."
615: Earliest records of some of Muhammad's teachings.
622: First year in Muslim calendar, The Hegira, 1a.h., (a.h.=anno hegirae.
622-680: Monothelite controversy: condemned at 6th Ecum. Council of Const.
625: Muhammad begins dictation of Qur'an (Koran) to his scribe
640: Library of Alexandria, "The Center of Western Culture," with 300,000 ancient papyrus scrolls, is completely destroyed.
777: Padmasambhava takes tantric Buddhism into Tibet.
909: The monastic foundation of Cluny by William of Aquitaine.
1022: Saint Symeon the New Theologian dies after initiating monastic reform after the order of the desert fathers.
1084: St. Bruno establishes the monastic Grand Chartreuse from which the Carthusian Order evolved.
1098: Citeaux Monastery begun.
1115: St. Bernard established Clairvaux monastery.
1119: The Charter of Charity establishes the Cistercian monastic Order.
1664: Abbot La Trapp adopts rigorous reforms, based on the Desert Fathers, creating the Cistercian's of the Strict Observance.
1825: Cistercian Trappists establish a footing in America.
1880? Rev. Ouseley translated the Gospel of the Holy Twelve.
1892: Cistercians are split into two Orders.
1896: Fragments of the Damascus Document found in a geniza storeroom in Cairo.
1910: Fragments of the Damascus Document published.
1928: Volume 1 of the Essene Gospel of Peace, claiming to be translated from a 3rd century Aramaic text from the Vatican, is published by Szekely. In 1975 Szekely publishes further information on the source of this manuscript, claiming it to have been translated by Jerome and preserved in the Benedictine monastery on Mount Cassio.
1945: Nag Hamadhi library discovered in Egypt containing many important early source texts of Gnosticism.
1947: First Dead Sea Scrolls discovered which included the Manual of Discipline.
1952-1956: Ten additional Dead Sea Scroll caves are found, with hundred of additional works.
1950: Foundation of Shantivanam, a Benedictine ashram in India.
1952: Benedictine monasteries re-unite into a single confederacy.
1968: Thomas Merton is electrocuted at the first Pan-Asian monastic conference in Bangkok.
1974: Volumes 2 and 3 of the Essene Gosepl of Peace published by Szekely.
1981: Volumes 4 of the Essene Gosepl of Peace published by Szekely's surviving spouse.
1999: Essene Garden of Peace monastery and community established in northern Arizona.
1999: The Essene Nasarene Church of Mount Carmel established in North Carolina.
2000: Essene Garden of Peace monastery and community established in northern California.

The Nazarenes of  Mount Carmel
Copyright © 1999-2016. The Nazarenes of Mount Carmel.

The Essene Numerology Chart | Ministerial Training Course